Physical Ecology

Lavender Lavandula spp

Lavender Lavandula spp

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ReCode Portland: Notes on particular codes, technologies, and laws

ReCode Portland is a project bringing together a wide variety of stakeholders, activists, researchers, builders, planners, and citizens of all kinds in designing and implementing a better regulatory environment. To do that, we need to share our research into what's currently out there, and what needs to be done.

ReCode has now launched a separate website:
to gather technical information and share news of the campaign. Please visit that site for more detailed information.

TLC Farm 2007 Accomplishments

TLC Farm Accomplishments in 2007

Land Projects
*Shaped bioswales and planted native plants to direct and store storm water in three different areas of TLC Farm. Transformed approximately 15,375 square feet (over a third of an acre!) from invasive blackberries into food forests and organic gardens.

*Site for the 7th Village Building Convergence, hosting workshops on food foresting, weeding for fertility, and swales/greywater. VBC participants removed blackberries, planted a food forest and re-designed the Village Green.

*Installed Portland's first public composting toilets! Along with increasing TLC Farm's ability to host visitors and classes, the toilets are a new educational tool, inspiring a PSU Master's Thesis and discussions about sewage and composting with every field trip that visits the farm.

*Successfully birthed and raised six baby goats, and sold 90 gallons of raw goat milk from TLC Farm.

Partnerships and Advocacy
*New and continuing partnerships with SERA Architects, Shining Star Waldorf School, Trackers NW, City Repair, Architects Without Borders, Architects For Humanity, Ancestral Lifeways Community, Portland Permaculture Guild, Coalition for a Livable Future, Center for a Sustainable Today, Salmon Nation, Sunroot Gardens, Cedar Moon, and more!

*Partnered with Shining Star Waldorf School to host Mother Earth Kindergarten, the nation's first bio-immersion kindergarten.

*Launched ReCode Portland, a campaign to develop new legal codes and permitting processes to allow for sustainable residential design.

Hands-on Sustainability Youth Education Program
* Hosted 103 field trips to over 1200 students and 300 adult chaperones.

* 19 volunteer teachers gave 292 teacher hours

* All classes provided on a donation basis, with $5540 in donations received this year

* Held TLC Farm's first sustainability-focused summer camp and second annual youth drum camp.

* Helped catalyze networking meetings with other farm/garden educational programs in Portland

* Received a $20,000 grant from Spirit Mountain Community Fund
and hired Matt Gordon as part-time education coordinator.

Community Education
*Hosted the Earth Activist Training in May, a two-week residential permaculture design certification course for 20 participants.

*Received a $3,500 Community Watershed Grant from the Bureau of Environmental Services to construct educational land signs, and have begun to design and construct the signs.

*Completed a comprehensive guide to over 100 medicinal plants found or grown at TLC Farm, which is available both on our website and as a laminated compilation to use while visiting the farm.

*Hosted over 20 community workshops on a variety of sustainability-related topics.

*Hosted seven interns, with internships from one week to one year,

*Hosted service projects with groups including Nike, PSU, AEI, Riverdale High School, Gilkey Middle School, Lewis & Clark College, and Northwest Service Academy Americorps.

Approximately 120 volunteers gave about 8,800 hours — WOW!!! TLC Farm is truly a volunteer effort, fueled by the love and generosity of the community. Thanks for another great year!

Village Building Convergence - begins May 23rd!

May 23 2008 - 4:00pm - Jun 1 2008 - 12:00pm
VBC at TLC Farm

This is TLC Farm's fifth year as a Village Building Convergence site, and we're excited to be hosting a number of fun projects and workshops.

The Village Building Convergence (VBC) is a 10-day citywide event from Friday, May 23rd – Sunday, June 1, 2008 in which neighborhoods activate to build shared public places that they have envisioned, designed, funded, and will maintain for themselves. The VBC will include hands-on education in permaculture design and construction, ecological building, and public art.

Each evening, the public is invited to gather for presentations and music at Bossanova, 722 E Burnside, from 5pm to late. For more details about the VBC, visit the City Repair websire at

TLC Farm is having a more limited project schedule this year, with public projects and workshops on May 24, 25, 29, 30 & 31st. Work parties will run from 10am - 5pm each day and lunch will be provided to volunteers.

VBC 8 Schedule at TLC Farm

Schedule of general projects:
Friday, May 23rd – garden projects & prep for the week
Saturday, May 24th – Earthen plastering on the dragon bench
Sunday, May 25th – Earthen plastering on the dragon bench
Thursday, May 29th – Earthen plastering & burnishing on the dragon bench
Friday 30th – Touch up earthen painting on other projects (bench and cob oven); build & plant herb spiral.
Saturday 31st – garden projects and complete any remaining plastering/earthen painting

Schedule of workshops:
Sheet Mulching Workshop
May 24th, 3-5pm
Living healthy soil is a key for producing healthy plants and nutritious food. Come learn how to build abundant soil through the process of sheet mulching.
Led by: Bonsai Matt

EcoRoof Workshop
Sunday May 25th, 12-4pm - Rain-cancelled: To Be Rescheduled
Install a living roof on one of TLC Farm's educational land signs. The workshop will include: 'a permacultural approach to living roofing -- using what's readily available, low-tech and self-sustaining, resulting in a simple, low-cost DIY model eco-roof.
Led by: Joel Carver

Plant Propagation Workshop
Sunday May 25th, 2-4:00 pm
Led by: Marisha Auerbach (Olympia, WA) and Bonsai Matt

Integrated Animal Stewardship
Sunday May 25th, 3pm-5pm
Examine the role of small livestock in integrated design systems at Tryon Life Community Farm. TLC Farm has goats and chickens and is actively transforming their care and housing to be more in line with permaculture principles. The workshop will discuss some basics of goat and chicken care, examine how animals can be helpful parts of a farm ecosystem, and touch on the many ethical considerations in animal husbandry.
Led by: Brenna Bell & Sue Romas

Art with Nature
Thursday May 29th, 2pm-5pm
Join Nature at TLC Farm to perform what he calls ‘Earth Meditation Consciousness’ and co-create sacred space. Mysteries will be answered by simply listening to the land. Come heal the land and your relationship with her, by immersing yourself fully in the forest.
Led by: Nature Hogan

Water Re-Use Discussion
Friday May 30th, 3-5 pm
Discuss the ins and outs of graywater and rainwater re-use with one of the country's leading experts – Art Ludwig, founder of Oasis Design.
led by: Art Ludwig

Rocket Stove & Workshop
Saturday May 31st, 1-5:00 pm
Join visiting experts from Aprovecho in assembling and installing a one-pot rocket stove in the TLC outdoor kitchen. The workshop will include a history of Aprovecho’s international involvement in the rocket stove movement, and the importance of increasing wood fire efficiency while lessoning harmful emissions. You will also get to build your very own pocket rocket stove. The hands on building portion of the workshop will display in detail the internal functions of a rocket stove, explain combustion basics, and how to efficiently capture heat. In addition you will learn about a great energy-saving cooking technology that everyone can make easily: a haybox!"
Led by: Tao Orion

Portland Tribune article on ReCode Portland sparks lively discussion

Today Jim Redden of the Portland Tribune did a solid story on the new ReCode Portland campaign, which is currently facilitated by TLC Farm. Once on the website, of course, frequent commenters with well-established anti-left perspectives jumped into the fray -- and so did some amazing allies with beautifully supportive things to say. Overall, it's a wonderful opportunity to deepen the conversation around what real sustainability, and democracy, can and should look like.

I enjoyed the chance to respond at length:

Dear Tribune readers,

Thanks so much for your energetic and often inspiring responses to ReCode Portland, this exciting new aspect of TLC Farm's programs! Portland's strength, and our best hope as an urban community, lies in so many folk with a passionate commitment to grassroots action for positive change. Reasonable people may disagree about the best approach, of course; that lends the resilience of diversity to our work. But I'm honored to be part of both the practice, and the discussion.

> Not all of [the laws] make any sence. Very few of them
> are really enforced.

> The only reason these people are even getting any
> attention is because they brought it upon them selves.

Indeed, that's true. As another commenter pointed out, a great many households in Portland make effective use of sustainability technologies that are formally illegal, by acting more or less underground. Why not us? Or, we could have relied on the fact that all our local officials and bureaus are looking to make changes anyway; a few wonks in a room could solve many of the problems. Why did we launch a public campaign to highlight these incongruities? Why did we invite criticism by talking at length about all of these "problems" with a reporter?

The reason is that we want to make this conversation as public, as open, and as democratic as we possible can. As a culture -- and as citizens of a city many consider a beacon of sustainability -- our best hope to unleash the innovation and creativity of the people in finding healthier and more responsible ways of living together. It's going to take all of us to not only eliminate ridiculous codes, but to transform practices and attitudes to better achieve our true values.

I'm going to engage the conversation in two sections: first, some brief clarification of the article itself; second, a more detailed answer to the few critical (but doubtless well-intended) commenters.

Thanks, everyone! See my next comment for further details.
J. Brush
TLC Farm legal coordinator


Now, going public involves some risks. Jim's a great reporter, but newspapers rarely get every single detail or aspect of a story completely right. So let me first clear up a few details.

Perhaps most importantly, the headline and first sentence are probably misleading. By no means were we shocked to discover that there would be zoning and code challenges involved in this project; indeed, we have always considered this a great chance for stakeholders to collaboratively solve long-standing issues. Some of the nuances were news (graywater is encouraged in WA, CA, and AZ -- but illegal in OR?), but positively transforming regulations has been part of the plan from the beginning.

Secondly, the approx. $20,000 master planning costs, and the approx. $6000 conditional use costs, are alternatives. With a master plan you have 10 years to initiate all the uses; with a conditional use review you have only 3.

Thirdly, while we support an experimental approach, the sustainability technologies we advocate are themselves well-proven. What we need to experiment with are social, economic, and political approaches to rapidly growing the use of such technologies.

Finally, BES (not OSD) combined with Metro and the Friends of Tryon Creek State Park to purchase a conservation easement over Park-adjacent land independently appraised at $400,000. As richard/s noted, that combined with a $600,000 mortgage from ShoreBank Pacific (at 8.5% interest, amortized over 25 years), as well as a $100,000 second mortgage from Equity Trust, Inc. (5% amortized over 10 years), and then donations ($350,000 from about 1500 people) and bridge loans. (To answer richard/s's question: yes, our mortgage payments have been promptly made. See our public financial statements here: . Second half of 2007 will be available shortly.)

Government partners were particularly pleased at the efficiency of this public/private partnership: not only do they have a permanent protective property interest in a proportion of the land, but they have the security of the terms of the 99-year lease with OSALT, which require that the entire parcel be used for sustainable research and education purposes. (No danger of selling out, L Gleason!) Government bodies got conservation of ecologically valuable land worth almost $1.5m, plus research, demonstration, and education programs, all for $300,000. That's a deal!

There are a few more inaccuracies in the article -- Brenna was on the Vision Council's engagement committee, not the steering committee; as a young campaign, ReCode Portland hasn't formalized partnerships with other groups yet; the only new structures built so far are outbuildings and temporary structures under the 200 sq ft building code threshhold; etc. -- but I'd like to turn now to specific issues brought up by commenters on-line.


> Human waste should not be used as fertilizer.

> Uh, Kumbaya Kids? The developing world is a disease ridden shi**ole...due in large part to the lack of modern santitation systems.
> Do the Tryon Creek folks intend to train their poop to stay
on their property? That must be some special poop. Smart too.
> Why has the environmental left been fighting against septic systems if they accomplish the same goal as your composting toilet?

This is a hot topic! "Wake up!" answered well, but I'll take the opportunity to go into more depth. "Modern" (ie. 19th century technology) sanitation involves dumping s$#% into drinking water, then piping it into the river when it's raining, or into a big cesspool next to the river when it's not. Even after the treatment plants, many municipal systems routinely violate the pollution standards set by DEQ and the EPA. Regardless, the nutrients fertilize something, usually unhelpful algal blooms.

That's what happens in the richest country in the world. "Developing world" urban areas suffer from far more heavily overtaxed systems (or none at all), without traditional practices or effective alternatives.

Extensive research into "waste treatment" shows what works: dense layers of biotic activity, in appropriate combination. This is a textbook opportunity for real sustainability: decentralized transformation of "waste", near the source, into valuable resources.

Maintained septic systems can work adequately, but they take far more space than is necessary and run the risk of leaching into groundwater. The reason is that they direct pathogen-filled liquid into the subsoil, in which there is much less biological activity. The best solutions maximize the opportunity for topsoil microorganisms, fungi, and plants to feed on and outcompete pathogens, and/or create so much heat that they can't survive. This can be done in two main ways:

1) Intensive wet bioremediation systems. Living Machines, rock and reed beds, mycofiltration systems, and other approaches increase the complexity and density of biotic activity interacting with water-borne wastes, while preventing leaching into the environment. They are very space-efficient, and work best at a neighborhood or institutional level where there is adequate consistency and attention to the system. We intend to create a demonstration model of such a system on the land, and streamline the permitting process.

2) Composting systems. A wide variety of technologies (as big or small as necessary) allow for a combination of nitrogen-rich "humanure" and carbon-rich mulch to be biologically processed safely, isolated from potential disease vectors, often involving temperatures high enough to rapidly kill pathogens. Once it has been completely processed (far more completely than "modern" municipal systems), it can be used on orchards or landscaping plants (to be super-safe, once again) in place of chemical fertilizers. Several states have operations that have been running successfully for years, even decades.

All approaches have been extensively tested, and our goal is to contiunue to verify the safety of all of these technologies exhaustively and finetune parameters for specific local situations.

By paying more attention to setting up an efficient system, and then small but regular doses of maintenance, we can create decentralized, safe, healthy closed-loop cycles rather than massive and obsolete billion-dollar industrial stopgap measures. Yes, in fact, we can "train" our poop to stay on our property by efficiently bioremediating it, and turning it into trees.

first things first:
> I think it is sad that the time, energy and dollars that could go to code fixes which would really benefit the community as a whole, or improve schools, or fix potholes will go to benefit this neo-hippy pot farm

Payin' my own way...:
> You see, cyn, those nasty folks sitting in their fancy homes after driving their big cars home....paid for all of it themselves.

> Note the difference from what your leftist, subsidized, grasping, lazy kumbaya-singin' bums at Tryon Creek want?

Old fart in Dayton, OR:
> More like a hippie commune, I thought we'd outgrown such childish ideological dreaming.

Well, the essential point of ReCode Portland is to benefit the community as a whole, by working with all interested stakeholders in creating regulations that accommodate and support the grassroots sustainability goals that the vast majority of Portlanders want. And TLC Farm provides low-cost and subsidized education to public school kids, and systematically supports alternative transportation modes (bikes, buses, carpools) that reduce traffic and potholes (which is also a key aspect of ReCode Portland).

It's a bit ridiculous to call a volunteer-run organization that has accomplished truly miraculous things by bringing together thousands upon thousands of active supporters and dozens upon dozens of organizations, "lazy". And for heaven's sake, we're open to the public 6 days a week and anyone can see we're not a "pot farm".

But are we "subsidized"? That's a more complicated question. As a non-profit, TLC Farm is in a sense subsidized because donations are tax-deductible. In addition, we receive grants from both government and non-government entities to perform work in the public interest. But compared to the enormous corporate welfare in this country, the tax loopholes for the wealthy, even the budgets of more establishment organizations, we are laughably un-subsidized by public funds.

Moreover, the residential community on the land (called Cedar Moon), is a completely separate legal entity that receives none of the funds directed to TLC Farm, and which pays 2/3 of the mortgage on the land. That's right: all of the residents of Cedar Moon pay market rates to live here, and then volunteer extensively for the non-profit.

And then we have to talk about the true "subsidies": the real, hard costs of pollution and wasted resources and climate change that are fueled by a disastrously short-sighted gluttony of fossil fuels, with the tab picked up by the government or (more often) future generations. We are much better weaned from those subsidies than most.

Hippy commune? Well, some of our volunteers have dreads, and others are factory-working bikers, and others are Lake Oswego grandmas, and others are soccer moms. This is a place where a wide cross-section of Portlanders feel comfortable and interact. And while Cedar Moon residents don't share incomes (the strict definition of commune), there is a lot of sharing of resources and consensus decision-making -- we like to call that "community".

> It is amazing how quickly the leftists who want to control everyone else....want to excuse themselves because their hopes and dreams are so much more lofty and poetic.

Ah yes, the political question.

Now, TLC Farm includes leftists, and liberals, and libertarians, and centrists, and folk who are sick and tired of politics and just want to do the work of creating a better world. I'm not going to speak for TLC Farm, but for myself.

I don't want the government to control everyone else, and I don't want exceptions. I want democracy: better and better social systems for freeing up human freedom and creativity, while protecting against abuse and oppression.

On that front, I think we're in trouble. Government is largely in the hands of big corporations and monied elites, we all know that. Spending is focused on militarism and repression, missiles and prisons. Foolish and irresponsible practices (enormous houses and cars that leave folk lonely, industrial farming, clearcuts) are heavily incentivized in an economic system that rewards short-term greed at the expense of long-term wisdom -- and then pays off the banks and investors with the people's money when the chickens come home to roost.

It's up to us, as regular people working together, to create alternatives to this poor pretense to "democracy". Real democracy doesn't mean that anyone can do whatever they want without consequences, but it also shouldn't mean that your only involvement in choosing our future is a ballotbox every few years. Planning should be brought as close as is effectively possible to the impacted people, to responsible grassroots community networks making collaborative decisions and taking direct actions. Government is best when it facilitates us, not dominates us.

For me, that's what ReCode Portland is all about.

Thanks everyone. I look forward to further discussion (though I rarely get much time to read and respond like this)!


ReCode Portland: organizing

Greetings, ReCoders!
Exciting things are on the move, though we've been a bit delayed getting the word out because of the holidays. Thanks for all the interest and input so far – it seems that this is ready to take on a life of its own!

This forum post is mostly the same as the email we just sent out to ReCode folks. To add to the discussion about how best to organize, new ideas, etc., just respond to this post! Once you're a participant or editor, you can create new topics too.

We had a great organizing meeting on December 13 at Laughing Horse Books. To read the detailed minutes, visit the ReCode blog at:

The next organizing meeting will be on Thursday, January 17 at 7 pm again at Laughing Horse Books (10 NE 12th). Hope to see you there!

Updates since the last meeting:
ReCode in the media: Our first media piece is happening sooner that anticipated. This past Sunday, TLC Farm got a call from Jim Redden asking “what's new?” and we couldn't resist telling him all about ReCode. Look for an article in Friday's Portland Tribune. Also, there is an article about ReCode in the most recent Communities magazine. Both articles focus on TLC Farm's involvement in ReCode, but we're very excited to be broadening the campaign beyond the work and vision of the farm.

Code Research: Amy Tyson wrote a comprehensive 35-page paper about ReCode, which discusses the history of building codes and zoning and details the specific regulatory issues TLC Farm is approaching in ReCode Portland. A great resource! (link to the website:

On that front, we're hoping to use TLC Farm's collaborative web site as a tool to coordinate the great research that folk are doing. See for further details on how to add to the site, and what our anticipated structure is. Please log in, and email us to be given editorial permissions!

Establishment of working groups:
To move the campaign forward, the folks at the meeting came up with the following five working groups. Each working group is autonomous and focused on its piece of the project, and all groups will come together once a month general meeting, to share resources and ideas and discuss strategy. Point people for the working groups act as catalysts to set meeting times and keep the group focused. If you're interested in getting involved with one (or more) of the working groups, please contact the point people. Some groups still need point people to help them move forward. Might that be you?

1.Code research and development. Point people: Cameron & Julee
Research what code and zoning is existing, and what we want to see. Figure out the process for creating new codes/ easier permitting for sustainable practices.
Folk (already) interested: Cameron, Julee, Matt, Amy, Tim, Jeff

2.Networking group. Point person: Brush
Keep in broader context, bring people in, cross-pollinate, contact allies. Get stakeholders on opposite sides, facilitate roundtables, understand the heart of issue. Networkers talk to people with concerns, not just ready-made allies. Also nationally, to bolster effort.
Folk interested: Brush, Magy, Jenny, Tim

3.Practices and goals. Point people (maybe?): Levin & Magy
What would these code changes look like on the ground? What is the world we want to see built? Work with code folks.
Folk interested: Levin, Magy, Julee, Amanda

4.Public education. Point person: ?
Public education through film, web, print media, etc. Create public awareness of the issues and garner support for regulatory change. Also, make easily accessible info about what the current codes are and how to navigate new ones.
Folk interested: Brenna, Amanda, Matt, Jeff

5.Government Relationships Point Person: Brenna
For both city and state.
Government is not keeping up with the desires/demands of the people. What concerns do they have, what are the hold-ups? Why were codes made in first place, and how can we address those concerns in a more sustainable fashion now?
Folk interested: Brenna, Jeremy

Fundraising: Not yet an established working group; could become so if people are interested. We don't want to wait for funding to get moving on the campaign, but will keep our eyes open for potential sources of funding for a paid organizer. We can write grants through TLC Farm. . .

Take care, and see you soon!

Medicinal Plants at TLC Farm: a guide

This is an Index page, for the full guide turn to our Medicinal Plant Guide to the Pacific Northwest


The following medicinal plants all grow in the Pacific Northwest, and can be found (somewhere) on the TLC farm.


We’ve taken on the joyous task of compiling all-sorts of useful information about the more-than one hundred plant species in our kitchen and medicinal garden.

Below, find explanations of how to use each plant. Find plant photos and cautionary remarks. We also note which plants are native to the Pacific Northwestern region and which are not.

This resources has been complied by Kristy S. Viaches, with help from Bonsai Matt, The Internet and a number of farm volunteers, based on numerous sources.


Native / Non-Native makes general reference to the Pacific Northwest area. We’ve also noted plants that are native to eastern and central North America.

Spp. in scientific names means there are several species within the genus.

Agrimony (Agrimonia eupatoria) Non-Native
Akebia (Akebia quinata) Non-Native
Alder (red) (Alnus rubra) Non-Native
Alkanet (Anchusa officinalis) Non-Native
Angelica (Angelica spp.) Non-Native
Apple (Malus pumila) Non-Native
Asparagus (Asparagus officinalis) Non-Native
Balloon flower (Platycodon grandiflora) Non-Native
Bamboo (Phyllostachys spp.) Non-Native
Bee balm (Monarda didyma) Native
Black Cohosh (Cimicifuga racemosa) - Eastern N. American Native
Blackberry (Rubus fruticosus) - Native & Non-Native
Blueberry (Vaccinum spp.) Native to Eastern N. America
Borage (Borago officinalis) Non-Native
Bugleweed (Lycopus virginicus ) Native
Burdock (Arctium lappa) Non-Native
Calendula (Calendula officinalis) Non-Native
California poppy (Eschscholzia californica) Native
Catnip (Nepeta cataria) and Catmint (Nepeta faassenii) Non-Native
Celandine (Chelidonium majus) Non-Native
Chamomile (Matricaria recutita) Non-Native
Cherry: (Prunus spp.) Native and Non-Native
Chicory (Cichorium intybus) Non-Native
Chrysanthemum, Shungiku (Leucanthemum coronarium) Non-Native
Clary sage (Salvia sclarea) Non-Native
Cleavers (Capsella bursa-pastoris) Non-Native
Clover, red (Trifolium pratense) Non-Native
Clover, white (Trifolium repens) Non-Native
Coltsfoot (Tussilago farfara) Non-Native
Comfrey (Symphytum officinale) Non-Native
Cramp bark (Viburnum opulus) Native to Easter N. America
Dandelion (Taraxacum officinale) Native
Dogwood (Cornus spp.) some varieties Native
Echinacea (Echinacea spp.) Central American Native
Elderberry (Sambucus spp.) Native & Non-Native
Elecampane (Inula helenium) Non-Native
Eucalyptus (Eucalyptus spp.) Non-Native
Evening primrose (Oenothera biennis) Native
Feverfew (Tanacetum parthenium) Non-Native
Fig (Ficus spp.) Non-Native
Garlic (Allium sativum) Non-Native
Ginkgo (Ginkgo biloba) Non-Native
Goldenseal (Hydrastis canadensis) Native
Hawthorne (Crataegus oxyacantha & C. monogyna) Non-Native
Honeysuckle (Lonicera spp.) Non-Native
Hops (Humulus lupulus) Non-Native
Huckleberry (Vaccinium spp.) Native
Indigo (Indigofera tinctoria) Non-Native
Japanese banana (Musa basjoo) Non-Native
Kinnikinnick (Uva Ursi) (Arctostaphylos uva-ursi) Native
Lavender (Lavandula spp.) Non-Native
Lemon balm (Melissa officinalis) Non-Native
Lovage (Levisticum officinale) Non-Native
Marshmallow (Althaea officinalis) Non-Native
Motherwort (Leonarus cardiaca) Non-Native
Mugwort (Artemisia vulgaris) Non-Native
Mullein (Verbascum thapsus) Non-Native
Oak, Garry (White) (Quercus garryana) Native
Olive (Olea europaea) Non-Native
Oregano (Origanum vulgare) Non-Native
Oregon Grape (Mahonia aquifolium) Native
Parsley (Petroselinium crispum) Non-Native
Pear, Asian (Pyrus spp.) Non-Native
Pennyroyal (Mentha pulegium) Non-Native
Plantain, common (Plantago major) and Ribwort plantain (Plantago lanceolata) Non-Native
Plum (Prunus domestica) Native
Poppy (Papaver rhoeas) Non-Native
Raspberry (Rubus idaeus) Native and Non-Native Varieties
Red currant (Ribes rubrum) some varieties are native
Rose, Japanese (Rosa rugosa) Non-Native
Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) Non-Native
Rue (Ruta graveolens) Non-Native
Sage, Garden (Salvia officinalis) and Purple (Salvia off. var. purpurascens) Non-Native
Sage, White (Salvia apiana) Native
Salal (Gaultheria shallon) Native
Scouring rush (Equisetum hyemale) Native
Skullcap (Scutellaria lateriflora) Native
Skunk cabbage (Symplocarpus foetidus) Native
Solomon’s seal (Polygonatum multiflorum) Native
Sphagnum moss (Sphagnum recurvum) Native
St. John’s Wort (Hypericum perforatum) Native
Stinging nettle (Urtica dioica) Non-Native
Strawberry (Fragaria spp.) Native & Non-Native
Sweet grass (Hierochloe odorata) Native
Thyme (Red) (Thymus spp.) Non-Native
Tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) Native to Eastern N. America
Turkey rhubarb (Rheum palmatum) Non-Native
Valerian (Valeriana officinalis) Native & Non-Native
Vetch, American (Vicia americana) Native
Wax myrtle (Pacific) (Myrica spp.) Native
Western Red Cedar (Thuja plicata) Native
Wild geranium (Geranium maculatum) Native
Wild ginger (Asarum canadense) Native
Willow (Salix spp.) some varieties Native
Winecap stropharia (Stropharia rugosar-annulata) Non-Native
Wintergreen (Gaultheria procumbens) Native
Witch Hazel (Hamamelis virginiana) Native to Eastern N. America
Wood Sorrel (Oxalis acetosella) Native
Wormwood (Artemisia absinthium) Native to Eastern N. America
Yarrow (Achillea millefolium) Non-Native
Yellow Dock (Rumex crispus) Non-Native
Yucca (Yucca filamentosa) Native

Bibliography - Medicinal Plant Photo Gallery

Land Plan, v. 1

Land Plan, v. 1

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